In the sixth class of the Latin from Scratch course, we’ll study the present indicative in the active voice. For that, we have to learn how this is done in each of the conjugations. Also, we have to study the present of sum, a verb which is quite frequent and irregular.
I explain everything in the following video (⏳ 09m 03s ⌛):
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Morphology of the Latin present indicative
The present tense in the indicative mood in the active voice is formed in the following way:
- present stem
- variable ĭ/ŭ (when necessary: see below)
- active endings
- We use ĭ in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular and 1st and 2nd plural, only in the 3rd conjugation
- We use ŭ in the 3rd person plural, only in the 3rd, mixed and 4th conjugations
|1st conjugation||2nd conjugation||3rd conjugation||mixed conjugation||4th conjugation|
(we would have expected *amao; underlined vowels are variable vowels)
The verb sum and its present indicative
The verb sum is the most frequent irregular verb, which is why we need to be studying it separately every time we study a new tense. This is the copulative verb of Latin, and it can be translated as ‘to be’, ‘to exist’, ‘there is/are’, etc.
Its statement is sum, esse, fui, – (no supine).
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After studying the present tense, and with all the knowledge from the five previous classes, we are ready to embark upon the adventure of our first texts, which we will analyze and translate from Latin into English.
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