In the eleventh module of the Latin from Scratch course, we’ll study the four tenses of the subjunctive mood (plus the future perfect indicative). The subjunctive mood appears quite often in common structures which we will study soon.
Classes on the subjunctive mood
- The active subjunctive present tense (07m 58s)
- The active subjunctive imperfect tense (06m 27s)
- The active subjunctive perfect tense (03m 43s)
- The active indicative perfect future tense (07m 27s)
- The active subjunctive pluperfect tense (02m 51s)
Practice: morphosyntactic analysis and translation (11)
On this occasion we will translate a fable adapted from the lectio XXIII in the Ludus Latinus by Wilhelm Hartke.
Aliquando asinus mansuetus in agro fecundo erat. Tum asinus ferus appropinquavit et cibum eius cum cibo suo comparavit. «Utinam», inquit, «mihi tua vita esset! Utinam ne tam saepe inopia victus laborarem! Si tecum essem, semper mihi satis pabuli esset, numquam in periculo, sed tutus essem».
Paulo post asinum mansuetum, magna copia frumenti onustum, agricola virga incitabat. Tum asinus ferus exclamat: «Quam stultus fui! Utinam ne fortunam tuam tam malam celebravissem! Si mihi nota fuisset, numquam te beatum appellavissem. Semper vita mea contentus ero!».
Here you have the statements of the words appearing in the translation for this module. It is important for you to learn the vocabulary. To compel you to do so, I won’t usually repeat words from previous modules.
For the text:
- aliquando — once upon a time
- asinus, asini — ass, donkey
- mansuetus, mansueta, mansuetum — docile, domestic
- fecundus, fecunda, fecundum — fertile, fruitful
- tum — then
- ferus, fera, ferum — wild
- cibus, cibi — food
- eius (genitive) — of his
- comparo, comparare, comparavi, comparatum — compare
- utinam (ne) — I wish (that not)!
- inquit — says
- inopia, inopiae — lack
- victus, victus — sustenance, food
- laboro, laborare, laboravi, laboratum — work hard, suffer hardships
- satis (+ genitive) — enough
- pabulum, pabuli — fodder, forage
- numquam — never
- tutus, tuta, tutum — safe, secure
- paulo post — a little after
- frumentum, frumenti — grain
- onustus, onusta, onustum — laden
- virga, virgae — stick, rod
- incito, incitare, incitavi, incitatum — urge, hit
- exclamo, exclamare, exclamavi, exclamatum — exclaim
- stultus, stulta, stultum — silly, fool
- celebro, celebrare, celebravi, celebratum — celebrate
- notus, nota, notum — known, famous
- beatus, beata, beatum — fortunate
- appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatum — call
Review of the translations
Once you have finished with the analysis and translations, now it’s time to review them on the screen.
⚠️ Even if you think you’ve done everything correctly, it is very important for you to always check the review, since that’s where we actually practice and check what we have learned. You’ve already seen that the analysis-translation process is quite systematic and strict at first, precisely so we can absorb everything we’re doing.
In the following video (⏳ 19m 50s ⌛) I analyze and translate the sentences:
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In the next module we’ll start putting all of these subjunctives into real practice with frequent structures.
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