In the tenth class of the Latin from Scratch course, we’ll study the future indicative in the active voice (to be precise, imperfect future). This tense rarely appears in history, but it is used in other types of texts.
I explain everything in the following video ():
Morphology of the Latin future indicative
This tense is quite tricky, since we actually have two different types of conjugation: one for the 1st and 2nd conjugations and another one for the 3rd, mixed and 4th. Both have disappeared in romance languages.
The future of the 1st and 2nd conjugations, and the verb sum
In the 1st and 2nd conjugations (and the verb sum), the thing is rather simple, as long as we don’t mix it with the imperfect.
- ĭ in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular and 1st and 2nd plural
- ŭ in the 3rd person plural
|1st conjugation||2nd conjugation||sum|
(underlined vowels are variable vowels)
The future of the 3rd, mixed and 4th conjugations
In the conjugations 3rd, mixed and 4th, the thing is a bit harder and it can look like the present subjunctive.
- ă is only used in the 1st person singular
- ē is used in all the other persons
|3rd conjugation||mixed conjugation||4th conjugation|
* a phonetic law shortens the vowel in the 3rd person singular: ducēt > ducĕt, etc.
That’s all we need to know about the future tense. Now let’s practice with some analysis and translation!